16/01/2018· Case Study: Read this case study for a specific example of chrome white iron outperforming AR plate. Microstructure Notes No article on heat treating ASTM A532 would be complete without taking a look at its microstructure. The high level of chromium in high chrome white iron prevents the formation of graphite in the microstructure. Instead of
The influence of heat treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of high chromium white cast iron alloyed with titanium was investigated. The austenitizing temperatures of 980°C and 1150°C for 1 hour each followed by tempering at 260°C for 2 hours have been performed and the effect of these treatments on wear resistance/impact toughness combination is reported.
An austenitizing heat treatment usually comprised heating at temperatures between 750 and 790°C (1380 and 1450°F) with a soak time of 8 h. Air or furnace cooling, not over 30°C/h, was conducted followed by a tempering/stress-relief heat treatment. Refrigeration heat treatment is the more commonly practiced remedy for low hardness today.
The invention discloses a high-chrome wear-resistant cast iron material and a heat treatment method. The high-chrome wear-resistant cast iron material is prepared from iron as a main raw material, and carbon, silicon, manganese, sulphur, phosphorus, chrome, molybdenum, nickel and copper as auxiliary materials in manners of melting and casting after preparation.
22/09/2016· The heat treatment should be designed based on the chemistry of the part, its section thickness and desired properties. Applications for Chrome White Iron Pumps,impellers and suction or bearing liners are some of the most common uses for chrome white iron.
different hardening temperatures on the properties of high chromium cast iron were compared. The study led to systemize the literature data of the parameters of heat treatment of high chromium cast iron, and optimal conditions for heat treatment was proposed for
form iron is lustrous, silvery, soft, and ductile. However, pure iron is a poor engineering material, generally not as strong as most plastics. Cast irons are based on the Fe-C system, and the solid-state transformations on which cast iron heat treatments are based are similar to those applied to steels. Heat Treatment of Cast Irons
Heat treatment of high chromium grinding ball is the main method to obtain good wear resistance. The research on high chromium cast iron ball mainly focuses on stone composition selection, heat treatment process determination, modifier selection, good carbide type and wear mechanism.
re-engineered High Chromium Steel rolls. By introducing special alloying elements and heat treatments versus industry standard products, the Union Electric Åkers enhanced High Chromium Steel is even more suited to the working conditions in the roughing stands of hot strip mills. High Chrome Steel Work Rolls, known for reliability and performance
wear performance of high chromium white cast iron. Quenching, seeding and micro-alloying can, to a limited extent, increase the wear resistance, but this is best achieved by heat treatment in the solid state. The methods for producing high chrome iron casting include double pour, continuous pour and centrifugal castings [1, 3]. In this study
chrome carbides and lead to the consequent chrome loss from the matrix whi ch caused the all oy structure to be susceptible to corrosion. However, hi gher chrome proporti ons all owed a high-chrome stainless matrix. When a thermal treatment was appli ed to
My question is, can high chrome cast iron be "heat treated" to re-harden to 500 HB after annealing or even tempering to 400? Some of the curves in the "Abrasion Resistant Cast Iron Handbook" suggest some high chrome irons can end up with vastly different hardnesses even after tempering to the same temperature, depending on retained austenite.
Microstructure and wear resistance of high chromium cast iron containing niobium *Li Wei Male, born in 1963, Ph.D, Professor. His research interests mainly focus on abrasion metallic materials and metal matrix composites, special functional metallic materials, tribological research and biomedical materials. E-mail: [email protected]
The high controlled percentage of chromium helps to retard the formation of graphite and stabilize the carbides. The article of D. Kopyciński et al. presents results of heat treatment on the high chromium cast iron. The study was carrying out on samples cut from the casting made from chromium cast iron. Those were hardened at different
In high-Cr white cast iron when the Si content is higher than 0.6%, formula (1) can not be used to calculate the t. The silicon element decreases the hardenability of the high-Cr white cast iron. The contents of alloying elements given in Figs. 3 and 4 were the
Annealing is the softening of metal by heat treatment. Ferrous metals are annealed by heating to just above the A3 point (a point above non-magnetic that varies with the carbon content), and then cooling slowly. For common carbon steels the cooling can be done in dry ashes, lime powder or vermiculite. For high carbon and alloy steels annealing
12/04/2001· Martensitic Stainless Steels. High carbon high chrome steels are heat treatable as a consequence of the higher carbon content, and are known as martensitic stainless steels (e.g. 410, 416). They do, however, exhibit lower corrosion resistance due to chromium depletion of the oxide film. They exhibit good strength and oxidation resistance up to
The variations of microstructure and mechanical properties of a high-chromium cast iron for rolls were studied from as-cast to the final heat treatments. Results show that the as-cast microstructure of the HCCI consists of M7C3 carbide, M23C6 carbide, martensite matrix, and retained austenite. The large dendritic M7C3 carbide surrounds the matrix, and the M23C6 carbide is mainly distributed in
2.2. Heat treatment. The annealing of high-chromium white cast iron alloys is conducted when it is necessary to machine the pieces before destabilization. This treatment is applied to obtain a soft matrix with the maximum amount of ferrite after solidification, creating excellent conditions for machining. The decomposition of austenite into
The high-chromium cast irons respond to heat treatment when the carbon and chromium contents are appropriately adjusted. However, machining of these alloys is very difficult. Chromium is added to heat-resistance cast irons because it assists in stabilizing carbides and forms a protective oxide on the metal surface. Even small additions of
a chilled ductile cast iron by a ball-cratering test using SiC slurry and the 19Cr iron with a higher chromium content ex-hibitedthebestwearresistance.Lessinformationcanbefound for the wear behaviour of high chromium cast irons in wet conditions with corrosive media. Relative erosion-corrosion wear rate of Fe-(15 to 30)Cr-3C has been reported
The chrome-nickel steels are used for a variety of applications on aircraft and missiles. In plate and sheet form it is used for fire walls, surface skin, exhaust stacks, heater ducts, gun wells, ammunition chutes, clamps, heat shields/deflectors, fairing, stiffeners, brackets, shims, etc.
Wear and Abrasion Resistant Cast Irons (White Irons) Click here for the Metallurgy of Cast Iron. White cast irons are widely used in abrasive wear applications involved in the crushing, grinding, milling and handling of abrasive materials such as minerals and ores, both dry and as slurries.
High Chromium White Cast Iron (High Cr White Iron) High Chromium White Cast Iron, or High Cr White Iron, grades are used in wear applications that require some corrosion resistance. The high chromium content offers the corrosion resistance and the fine carbides dispersed throughout provide the hardness. These grades cannot be welded.
Heat Treatment and Properties of Iron and Steel Thomas G. Digges,1 Samuel J. Rosenberg,1 and Glenn W. Geil This Monograph is a revision of the previous NBS Monograph 18. Its purpose is to provide an understanding of the heat treatment of iron and steels, principally to those unacquainted with this subject. The basic principles involved in the
12/12/2018· Common Heat Treatment for the Specific Cast-Iron Types. High-alloy (e.g., high chromium, high nickel-chromium) white irons can be heat treated. For example, nickel-chromium white-iron castings are given a stress-relief heat treatment because, properly made, they have an as-cast martensitic matrix structure. Tempering is performed between 205°C
Alloying Elements in Stainless Steel and Other Chromium-Containing Alloys by Pierre-Jean Cunat Pure iron is too soft to be used for the purpose of structure, but the addition of small quantities of other elements (carbon, manga-nese or silicon for instance) greatly
Depending on how the iron is processed, it can take various forms. Pig iron, with about 4-5% carbon and some other metallic impurities is usually used for cast articles such as stoves, cookware, pipes, lampposts and rails. Iron can be made hard and brittle by heating to a high temperature and then quenching it quickly in water. In this form
Blue Light Industry, a subsidiary of the UAE based engineering conglomerate Trinity Holdings, is a leading provider of engineered sand castings, heat treatment and electroplating service. For over 20 years, Blue Light has been committed to offer quality services to diverse industry requirements.
High Chrome Wear Plates For Heat Treatment. High Chrome Wear Plates for Heat treatment Introduction High chromium cast iron grate plate of cement mill matrix hardness is very high, can resist cutting wear in low impact load, iron chromium carbide particles as hard phase embedded in the matrix, the matrix played a supporting role and can...
EN26 is a 2.5% nickel chromium molybdenum high hardenability, high tensile steel, generally supplied hardened and tempered in the tensile range 1000 1150 Mpa (Condition V) Rc 31 38.Characterised by high strength and toughness in very large sections similar to EN25 but with higher carbon content, particularly suitable where high surface pressure exists.